Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by hepatitis B virus infection Hepatitis B virus is the culprit because it is 100 times more infectious than HIV and 10 times more easily infected than hepatitis C. Hepatitis B can be acute or chronic. Acute infection can become chronic, however this is not always the case.
The incidence (prevalence) chronic hepatitis B in Indonesia is estimated at 5-10% of the total population, or the equivalent of 13.5 million people. This amount is made Indonesia the third Asian country to which people with hepatitis B kroniknya at most, after China and India.
- Approximately 400 million people globally are infected with chronic hepatitis B.
- Every year about 10-30 million cases of new infections
- Every year approximately 1 million deaths related to hepatitis B
- In the U.S. approximately 1.25 million chronically infected with hepatitis B, and there are about 100,000 new cases each year.
How are the symptoms?
Hepatitis B is a silent disease, where a person can be infected for years, but showed no symptoms. But in most people with hepatitis may show symptoms that can appear several weeks or several months after infection, such as fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, abdominal pain, dark urine, muscle pain, and jaundice.
Hepatitis B is most commonly spread when blood and other body fluids such as semen (cum) or vaginal secretions of an infected person enters tubuuh uninfected.
This can occur through:
- Sexual contact with a patient
- Human bites
- The use of shared needles, syringes or other injection drug equipment.
- From infected mother to her baby during childbirth
- The use of unsterilized needles in ear piercing, tattooing and acupuncture
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not found in sweat, tears, urine, or respiratory secretions.
HBV is not transmitted through sharing food utensils, hugging, coughing, sneezing and handrails. Several cases of hepatitis not stated infected through food or beverages.
Does Hepatitis B Chronic Diseases Including Serious Enough?
Yes. Approximately 15-25% of people with chronic hepatitis B can progress to serious liver disease, including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer.Each year, an estimated up to 4000 people in the United States and more than 600,000 people worldwide die from diseases related to hepatitis B.
Most adults infected with hepatitis B will recover without any problems. Unfortunately, this does not occur in infants and in children. The younger a person is infected first, then the more likely develop into chronic.
- If an infected adults: 10% will develop chronic infection
- If a child is infected: 50% will develop chronic infection
- If a baby is infected: 90% will develop chronic infection
How to Know Someone Infected with Hepatitis B?
The only way to tell if someone is newly infected with hepatitis B, have been recovered, infected with chronic hepatitis, or vulnerable to infection, only through blood tests.
Three standard tests commonly performed are:
- HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen)
Are early markers of hepatitis B, which mmuncul 4-12 weeks after infection. When HBsAg settled in the blood of more than 6 months, there is a chronic infection
- Anti-HBc (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen)
This antibody consists of 2 types of anti-HBc IgM and IgG anti-HBc
- It comes two weeks after HBsAg is detected, it can last up to 6 months
- Participate in the core window (window phase) is the time when sudh lost HBsAg, but anti-HBs has not yet appeared
- 10% of acute hepatitis are not detected simply by checking the HBsAg
- Appeared before the anti-HBc IgM disappeared
- Detected on acute and chronic hepatitis
- It can survive in the healing phase (lower level)
- It has a protective effect
Interpretation of positive results of anti-HBc biasanyatergantung results of HBsAg and anti-HBs
3. Anti-HBs (antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen)
If the result is “positive” or “reactive” indicates immunity / kekebalaan against HBV infection, either from vaccination or infection of the healing process of the past.Someone who is infected in the past, can not transmit the disease to others.
How to Prevent Hepatitis B?
Vaccination as early as possible is the most appropriate preventive measures, especially in Indonesia because the prevalence is quite high. Vaccination can protect approximately 90-95% of young adult population. The vaccine was safely administered to infants, children and in adults. To prevent vertical transmission, pregnant women are encouraged check every HBsAg, so the doctor can take a decision in the subsequent handling of pregnant women, and that newborns of mothers with immediately given immunizations.
Tips for People with Liver Disease
- Healthy and balanced diet. The number of calories needed to be adjusted by height, weight, and activity. In certain circumstances required a low-protein diet
- Many vegetables and fruits as well as the activities according to their ability to prevent constipation
- Running a regular pattern of life
- Get plenty of rest
- Consult with your doctor
Tips to Prevent Hepatitis
- Always maintain personal hygiene and environmental
- Avoidance of transmission through contaminated food & drinks, injections, tattooing, needle punctures contaminated, unsafe sex
- If you need help using a disposable needle or disposable
- Examination of blood donors for hepatitis virus
- Having sex is healthy and safe
- Hepatitis B vaccination program